Relationship between habits and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity – a clinicopathological study
Introduction: Oral cancers account for 3% of total malignancies. A research was conducted to find the incidence, age, and sex distribution, clinical presentation, and the relationship between habits and various premalignant lesions of the oral cavity.
Methods: It was a hospital-based observational and cross-sectional study, conducted in GSL Medical College, Rajamahendravaram from October 2015 to April 2017. Individuals aged > 18 years, with leukoplakia, erythroplakia, blanched mucosa with or without fibrous bands and /or trismus suggestive of oral submucous fibrosis, bilateral whitish lesions with a reticular pattern suggestive of lichen planus, and ulcer against sharp tooth denture suggestive of traumatic dental ulcers were taken. Individuals with frank oral malignancy, those with terminal diseases, those who did not submit informed consent were not considered.
Results: The majority of patients (33.33%) were aged between 51 – 60 years, belong (62.75%) to lower socioeconomic status. Leukoplakia (64.7%) was a common clinical presentation. Most (49.02%) of the study patients presented with a burning sensation. When addictions were considered, 86.27% of patients were smokers, 23.53% were addicted to alcohol.
Conclusion: Leukoplakia was the commonest (64.71%) premalignant lesion, 51 – 60 years was the common age group. Premalignant lesions were most commonly seen among males, most of the study participants belong to low and middle socio-economic groups with a rural background. Diabetes mellitus was the most common comorbidity associated with premalignant lesions.
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