Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in neonatal intensive care unit in a tertiary care centre in central India
Introduction: Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is one of the most common disorders affecting the eyes of premature infants, characterized by abnormal proliferation of retinal blood vessels. In the absence of treatment, it can result in retinal detachment and permanent loss of vision. Advances in neonatal care have resulted in increase in survival rates of very premature infants and consequent increase in incidence of ROP.
Purpose: The present study, conducted in a single NICU in a tertiary care centre, estimates the incidence of ROP and evaluates the associated risk factors.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on premature infants in a tertiary care unit in Central India between February 2018 to July 2019. One hundred and four infants were included in the study based on the following inclusion criteria: Gestational age below 34 weeks, Birth weight below 1700 gms, or babies born with gestational age above 34 weeks or birth weight above 1700 gms, but with any of the following: respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, blood transfusions or multiple gestation. Follow up was done until disease resolution or until treatment criteria were achieved.
Results: A total of 104 infants were evaluated after applying the inclusion criteria. Babies that were screened had mean GA of 30.28 weeks (SD: 2.84, range: 26–36 weeks). Babies with ROP had a mean GA of 28.91 weeks (range: 26–36 weeks, SD: 2.64). The mean Birth weight for the cohort was 1468 g (standard deviation [SD]: 300, range: 830–1870 g). Babies in ROP group had a mean BW of 1278 g (SD: 0.27, range: 830 –1726 g). The incidence of ROP of any stage was found to be 25.96%. Babies with a GA of <28 weeks had the highest incidence of ROP (62.8%). A significant association was noted between ROP and oxygen therapy(P<0.01) as well as RDS(P<0.02).
Conclusion: This study found incidence of ROP to be 25.96% in the target population and showed respiratory distress and Oxygen therapy to be significant risk factors associated with the disease.
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