Ocular manifestations of leprosy
Introduction: Leprosy or Hansen’s disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by an intracellular rod-shaped acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium leprae which affects the skin, nasal mucosa, peripheral nerves and the anterior segment of the eye. Mycobacterium leprae was discovered by a Norwegian physician G. Armauer Hansen in the year 1874.
Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in the outpatient Department of Ophthalmology and inpatient department of Dermatology at Mamatha Medical College and Hospital, Khammam from March 2015-March 2016. In this study a total of 78 patients were taken, 61 males and 17 females of the age group 20 years and above. All diagnosed cases of leprosy. Old and new cases, both genders and age group of 20 years and above. Noncompliant patients, Patients with preexisting ocular disorders due to other causes than leprosy.
Results: In the group 'A' there are 21 patients of whom 7 patients (33.3%) showed evidence of ocular involvement. In group 'B' 8 out of 12 patients had eye lesions, thus a greater percentage (66.6%) showed ocular involvement. 39 out of 45 (86.6%) patients of group 'C' showed ocular involvement. Thus, it is found that the greater the duration of the disease, the more are the chance for ocular involvement. Most of the patients had eye lesions when the disease is more than 10 years in duration.
Conclusion: Visual impairment is preventable in Leprosy if detected early. The risk of ocular complications increases with the duration of the disease, despite being treated with systemic anti-leprosy drugs.
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